Evaluating TOD in the context of local area planning using mixed-methods

Richa Maheshwari, Anna Grigolon, Mark Brussel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we developed a three-step methodology for evaluating Local Area Planning (LAP) projects prepared to promote sustainable transit-oriented development (TOD). Using data from the Indian city of Ahmedabad, we quantified LAP-TOD indicators to evaluate TOD levels before and after LAP implementation around the planned metro corridors. We conducted expert interviews and reviewed LAP documents to better understand the results of these TOD indices and develop policy recommendations to strengthen LAPs. In our quantitative analysis, we found that normalized post-LAP TOD index scores for the studied metro station areas ranged from 0.12 to 0.30. These scores are low, and there is much room for improvement, considering that the highest normalized TOD index score that can be achieved is 1. Through interviews with carefully selected experts, we were able to get a comprehensive picture of the different opinions on local development challenges around metro stations. In reviewing policy documents, we identified several important gaps in the LAPs. We conclude that our contextual mixed-methods approach proved to be useful in this LAP-TOD planning project, as it revealed converging and conflicting results from the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Thus, this study contributes to the existing literature on LAP-TOD by arguing that a combination of both methods is best suited to capture all relevant elements and provide a sufficient basis for policy recommendations.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Mixed-method
  • Local area plans
  • Transit-oriented development
  • Policy recommendations
  • Ahmedabad

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