On undirected trips, satisfaction, and well-being: Evidence from Flanders (Belgium)

Hannah Hook, Jonas De vos, Veronique Van Acker, Frank Witlox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite having the potential to improve subjective well-being, satisfaction with undirected travel, or travel for its own sake (e.g. taking a walk, bike ride, or joy ride), has not yet been empirically investigated. Using mean-comparison and generalized linear regression models, this study analyzes 1579 undirected trips made by 852 respondents to a survey in Flanders, Belgium during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown (18 March – 4 May 2020). Undirected travel was found to be longer in duration and more satisfying than results from directed trips in previous literature, with an indication that higher levels of physical activity are important to satisfaction. Undirected travel satisfaction was found to have a clear positive relationship to well-being. As these trips are often active and were found to imply a positive utility of travel, understanding them can be important to policy goals regarding health, sustainability, and improving individual well-being.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103018
JournalTransportation Research, Part D: Transport and Environment
Early online date26 Aug 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Aug 2021


  • Undirected travel
  • Travel satisfaction
  • Subjective well-being
  • Travel behavior
  • Positive utility of travel

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