Access to essential services for people on low incomes in Europe: An analysis of policies in 35 countries. European Social Policy Network (ESPN)

Isabel Baptista, Eric Marlier

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report


This ESPN report examines access to six essential services (water, sanitation, energy, transport, financial services and digital communications) by people on low incomes in the 27 EU countries and in 8 non-EU countries. It shows that more needs to be done at national and EU level to guarantee accessible, available and affordable good-quality essential services to all in line with the European Pillar of Social Rights, and makes several recommendations to achieve this. The report also highlights the importance of ensuring that support measures are backed up by comprehensive policy frameworks as well as effective monitoring, evaluation and governance mechanisms.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationBrussels
PublisherEuropean Commission
Commissioning bodyEuropean Commision
Number of pages164
ISBN (Print) 978-92-76-18861-2
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sep 2020


  • ESPN
  • low-income
  • Europe
  • EU countries
  • essential services
  • ESPN 2018: Establishment and Management of a Social Policy Network

    Marlier, E., Guio, A., Frazer, H., Sementini, L., Vanhercke, B., Ward, T., Baeten, R., Fink, M., Fuller, A., Klosse, S., Natali, D., Natter, M., Olafsson, S., Vandenbroucke, F., Riedel, M., Nicaise, I., Pacolet, J., Bogdanov, G., Georgieva, L., Zahariev, B., Stubbs, P., Vukorepa, I., Zeinscak, S., Kantaris, M., Koutsampelas, C., Theodorou, M., Jahoda, R., Maly, I., Sirovatka, T., Kvist, J., Moller Pedersen, K., Biin, H., Masso, M., Paat-Ahi, G., Piirits, M., Kalliomaa-Puha, L., Kangas, O., Bonnand, G., Huteau, G., Huteau, G., Le Bihan, B., Legros, M., Martin, C., Gerlinger, T., Hanesch, W., Schmitz, J., Sakellis, Y., Theodoroulakis, M., Ziomas, D., Fruzsina, A., Gal, R. I., Asgeirsdottir, T., Olafsson, S., Stefansson, K. H., Burke, S., Daly, M., Hughes, G., Jessoula, M., Natili, M., Pavolini, E., Raitano, M., Lace, T., Rajevska, F., Hornich, P., Marxer, W., Lazutka, R., Poviliunas, A., Zalimiene, L., Swinnen, H., Gjorgiev, D., Gerovska Mitev, M., Borg, A., Vassallo, M., Anderson, K. M., de Vaan, K., van Waveren, B., West Pedersen, A., Skevik Grodem, A., Veenstra, M., Chłoń-Domińczak , A., Sowa, A., Topińska , I., Perista, P., Mateus, C., Perista, H., Quaresma, M. D. L., Farcasanu, D. O., Pop, L., Urse (Pescaru), D., Bajec, J., Stokic Pejin , L., Bednárik , R., Madarasová Gecková , A., Gerbery, D., Majcen, B., Prevolnik Rupel , V., Stropnik, N., Gonzáles de Durana , A. A., Moreno Fuentes, F. J., Marbán Gallego , V., Montserrat Codorniu, J., Rodriguez Cabrero, G., Fritzell, J., Nelson, K., Palme, J., Schön, P., Bonoli, G., Trein, P., Adaman, F., Aslan, D., Burcay Erus, B., Sayan, S., Bennett, F., Bradshaw, J. & Glendinning, C.

    European Commission


    Project: Research

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